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California Energy Flow (Energy Balances)

Page last updated: 7/1/2008

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Energy balance databases arrange data into three principal dimensions: (1) products, (2) flows, and (3) time. Products are simply the various energy sources. They consist of natural gas, crude oil and petroleum products, coal, electricity, and other minor energy sources. This report distinguishes between primary electricity from sources such as hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic and secondary electricity produced from converted thermal energy. Flows refer to processes of supplying, transforming, and consuming energy. The transformation phase refers to the energy used to extract and process energy resources as well as the energy inputs themselves that are transformed into secondary sources (for example the crude oil that is refined into petroleum products). The consumption phase signifies all of the end uses of energy throughout the economy. Time denotes the calendar year or years of the energy data available. An energy balance per se consists of a balancing of supply, transformation, and consumption data in a given year.

California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors Publication #CEC-500-2013-023 ( 138 pages, 1.6 MB )

California Energy Balance Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Publication #CEC-500-2012-FS-006 ( 2 pages, 221 kb )

The final report from the project, Development of Energy Balances for the State of California, publication number CEC-500-2005-068, published June 2005, is available to download below.

Development of Energy Balances for the State of California Publication #CEC-500-2005-068 ( 72 pages, 458 kb )

Energy Supply

The energy supply phase of an energy balance documents those flows of energy available to the economy prior to transformation and consumption. The energy supply flow includes indigenous energy production, imports, exports, international marine bunkers, and net stock withdrawals.

Energy Transformation

The transformation phase of an energy balance accounts for two distinct aspects of energy provision: (1) energy inputs that are ultimately converted to secondary sources; and (2) the energy used for the extraction and processing of energy resources (e.g., coal mining, oil and gas extraction, process energy use at refineries). The electricity sector is disaggregated into five types of energy providers, following the EIA classifications currently used in the Electric Power Annual publications and data sets. These consist of: (1) utilities; (2) independent power producers (IPPs); (3) combined heat and power (CHP), electric power sector; (4) CHP, industrial sector; and (5) CHP, commercial sector.

Electricity distribution losses occur in the transmission and distribution of electricity to consumers. Because actual data on losses are difficult to obtain, losses are currently estimated by induction, using an assumption of 8% losses of electricity delivered to the grid.

Energy Consumption

For the purpose of the CALEB database, energy consumption data have been categorized into four principal end-use sectors: (1) industry, (2) transportation, (3) services, and (4) residences.